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قطب علمی آموزش الکترونیکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز

زخم بستر

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اگر بیماري که به مدت طولانی در تخت بستري است در یک وضعیت قرار داشته (به یک پهلو بخوابد) و جابجا نشود، به دلیل فشاري که به پوست وارد می آید، دچار زخم بستر (یا زخم فشاري) می شود.


 

 


 

در این مبحث به این سؤالات شما پاسخ داده می‌شود:

  1. زخم بستر چیست؟
  2. چه مواردی ایجاد زخم بستر را سرعت می‌بخشند؟
  3. برای پیشگیری از زخم بستر چه باید کرد؟
  4. اقدامات اولیه در بیماری که دچار زخم بستر شده است چه می‌باشد؟
  5. تشک مواج چه ویژگی‌هایی دارد؟

     

   1. زخم بستر چیست؟

اگر بیماری که به مدت طولانی در تخت بستری است در یک وضعیت قرار داشته (به یک پهلو بخوابد) و جابجا نشود، به دلیل فشاری که به پوست وارد می‌آید، دچار زخم بستر (یا زخم فشاری) می‌شود.

تصویر 1: شروع زخم بستر از لایه سطحی پوست

همان‌طور که در تصویر مشاهده می‌کنید زخم بستر از لایه‌های سطحی پوست شروع شده و به سرعت در لایه‌های زیری پوست گسترش پیدا می‌کند.

شما زخم بستر را در مراحل اولیه به شکل یک قرمزی ساده در سطح پوست می بینید. اما این قرمزی ظرف مدت زمان بسیار کوتاهی به سرعت به لایه‌های زیری پوست نفوذ می‌کند. در سطح پیشرفته به صورت زخم و یا تاول دیده می‌شود. این تاول و زخم می‌تواند تا بافت‌های زیرین پوست و حتی تا استخوان بیمار پیشروی کند.

 افراد پیر و افرادی که مبتلا به بیماری قند خون (یا دیابت) می‌باشند بیشتر مستعد زخم بستر می‌باشند.

در صورتی که هر گونه قرمزی در پوست بیمار مشاهده کردید. بلافاصله باید اقدامات درمانی را شروع کنید چون در عرض کمتر از چند ساعت این زخم کلیه بافت‌های زیرین را از بین می‌برد. زخم بستر بیشتر در قسمت‌هایی که تحت فشار هستند و یا در تماس مستقیم با ملافه می‌باشد دیده می‌شود مانند قوزک پا، پاشنه پا، زیر باسن، بین دو باتکس، مهره‌های کمر، مهره‌های گردن، زیر آرنج و پشت کتف، پشت سر.

      

2.   چه مواردی ایجاد زخم بستر را سرعت می‌بخشند؟

1. تشک نامناسب

2. ملافه خیس و مرطوب و یا تا خورده و چروک شده.

3. هر وسیله ای که زیر بدن بیمار قرار بگیرد و روی آن نقطه فشار آورد.

4. پوشش پلاستیکی زیر پای بیمار.

5. جابه‌جا نکردن و ماساژ ندادن بیمار.

تصویر 2: مناطقی که بیشتر احتمال ابتلا به زخم بستر دارد.

      

 3.  برای پیشگیری از زخم بستر چه باید کرد؟

1- بیمار را روزانه حمام کنید. اگر امکان این مسئله وجود ندارد حداقل روزی یک‌بار همه بدن را با آب گرم پاک کرده و خشک نمایید؛ به‌خصوص نواحی که بیمار عرق می‌کند مانند بین باتکس (به تصویر 3 دقت نمایید).

تصویر 3: جای زخم بستر پیشرفته بالای باسن که ترمیم یافته

2- ملافه بیمار به طور روزانه تعویض شود.

3- ملافه بیمار را از جنس نخ یا پنبه انتخاب کنید.

4- در صورتی که ملافه بیمار خیس شد بلافاصله آن را تعویض کنید.

5- از ملافه مرطوب زیر بدن بیمار استفاده نکنید.

6- روکش پلاستیکی به طور مستقیم با بدن بیمار تماس نداشته باشد. حتماً روی روکش از ملافه نخی یا پنبه‌ای استفاده کنید.

7- نواحی که زیاد عرق می‌کند مانند کشاله ران، بین دو باتکس، زیر بغل را با آب و صابون به خوبی بشویید و خشک کنید.

8- بعد از هر بار حمام کردن برای پیشگیری از خشک و حساس شدن پوست می‌توانید بدن بیمار را با لوسیون بچه، روغن زیتون یا روغن بادام ماساژ دهید.

9- به محض آنکه بیمار مدفوع کرد تعویض شود. ناحیه را با آب گرم و صابون بشویید و خشک کنید.

10- در صورتی که در اثر مدفوع، بدن بیمار قرمز شد بعد از شستشوی ناحیه آن را با زینک اکساید چرب کنید.

11- از تا خوردن و چروک شدن ملافه زیر بدن جلوگیری کنید.

12- هر 2 ساعت یک‌بار بیمار را در تخت جابجا کرده و نواحی حساس را به آرامی ماساژ دهید (زیر باسن، بین دو باتکس، مهره‌های کمر، مهره‌های گردن، زیر آرنج و پشت کتف، پشت سر).

13- از تشک مواج استفاده کنید.

14- اگر پوست بیمار تاول زد، تاول را باز نکنید و قسمتی که تاول زده را در معرض هوا قرار دهید تا سریع‌تر بهبود یابد.

       

4.  اقدامات اولیه در بیماری که دچار زخم بستر شده است چه می‌باشد؟

1. اولین کاری که باید انجام دهید آن است که اجازه ندهید ناحیه قرمز شده در تماس با تشک، ملحفه، پتو و ... باشد.

2. ناحیه قرمز شده را در معرض هوا قرار دهید. ناحیه را با سرم شستشو یا آب گرم بشویید و به محل پماد زینک اکساید بمالید. در صورت پیشرفت زخم با پرستار تماس بگیرید.

   

5.    تشک مواج چه ویژگی‌هایی دارد؟

  تشک مواج در بیمارانی استفاده می‌شود که باید به مدت طولانی در بستر استراحت کنند. این تشک که روکش ضد آب دارد با توجه به وزن بیمار تنظیم می‌شود و به صورت اتوماتیک قسمت‌های مختلف آن از هوا پر و خالی می‌گردد. این کار از متمرکز شدن فشار روی یک نقطه از بدن جلوگیری می‌کند و از زخم بستر تا حدودی ممانعت به عمل می‌آورد اما توجه داشته باشید که فقط استفاده از تشک کافی نیست بلکه همزمان از دیگر روش‌ها نیز باید استفاده نمایید.

تصویر 4: تشک مواج

چک کنید که تشک همیشه به جریان برق متصل باشد از فرو کردن اشیاء تیز در تشک خودداری نمایید. در اثر سوراخ شدن تشک کارایی لازم را از دست می‌دهد.

برای ضد عفونی کردن سطح تشک از محلول آب و مایع سفید کننده رقیق استفاده کنید. روی تشک را با ملحفه پارچه‌ای از جنس نخ یا پنبه بپوشانید. در قسمت مرکزی یعنی جایی که باسن قرار می‌گیرد و امکان دارد به علت اجابت مزاج بیمار آلوده به ادرار یا مدفوع شود، روکش پلاستیک بیاندازید و مجدداً روی روکش پلاستیک را با روکش نخی بپوشانید؛ با این کار از آلوده شدن تخت به مدفوع و ادرار جلوگیری می‌کنید.

نکته : در صورتی که پوشش پلاستیکی با بدن بیمار در تماس باشد امکان پیدایش زخم بستر افزایش می‌یابد.

پشت تشک وسیله‌ای قرار دارد که موتور دستگاه می‌باشد؛ از ضربه زدن و خیس کردن آن خودداری کنید.

مواظب باشید سیم‌های رابط متصل به تشک پاره نشوند و یا از دستگاه جدا نگردند.

نکته 1: استفاده از تشک مواج زمانی در پیشگیری زخم بستر موثر می‌باشد که همراه با جابجایی بیمار در تشک باشد. هر 2 ساعت یک بار، بیمار را در تشک جابجا کنید.

نکته 2: در صورتی که تشک مواج نیاز به شستشو داشت هرگز آن را در معرض نور مستقیم آفتاب قرار ندهید.

نکته 3: در بیشتر مواقع در صورت سوراخ شدن، تشک مواج کارایی خود را از دست می‌دهد و باید تعویض شود اما در کالای پزشکی چسب‌های مخصوصی برای رفع این مشکل وجود دارد که گاهی اوقات می‌تواند کمک کننده باشد.

 

 خلاصه

اگر بیماری که به مدت طولانی در تخت بستری است در یک وضعیت قرار داشته (به یک پهلو بخوابد) و جابجا نشود. به دلیل فشاری که به پوست وارد می‌آید، دچار زخم بستر (یا زخم فشاری) می‌شود.

مواردی که ایجاد زخم بستر را سرعت می‌بخشند:

1. تشک نامناسب

2. ملافه خیس و مرطوب و یا تا خورده و چروک شده.

3. هر وسیله‌ای که زیر بدن بیمار قرار بگیرد و روی آن نقطه فشار آورد.

4. پوشش پلاستیکی زیر پای بیمار.

5. جابه‌جا نکردن و ماساژ ندادن بیمار.

اقدامات اولیه در بیماری که دچار زخم بستر شده است عبارت است از:

1. اولین کاری که باید انجام دهید آن است که اجازه ندهید ناحیه قرمز شده در تماس با تشک، ملحفه، پتو و ... باشد.

2. ناحیه قرمز شده را در معرض هوا قرار دهید. ناحیه را با سرم شستشو یا آب گرم بشویید و به محل پماد زینک اکساید بمالید. در صورت پیشرفت زخم با پرستار تماس بگیرید.

تشک مواج: تشک مواج در بیمارانی استفاده می‌شود که باید به مدت طولانی در بستر استراحت کنند. این تشک که روکش ضد آب دارد با توجه به وزن بیمار تنظیم می‌شود و به صورت اتوماتیک قسمت‌های مختلف آن از هوا پر و خالی می‌گردد. این کار از متمرکز شدن فشار روی یک نقطه از بدن جلوگیری می‌کند و از زخم بستر تا حدودی ممانعت به عمل می آورد، اما توجه داشته باشید که فقط استفاده از تشک کافی نیست بلکه همزمان از دیگر روش‌ها نیز باید استفاده نمایید.

 



برای مشاهده اسلایدهای تعاملی اینجا کلیک کنید.

ویدیو این قسمت در دست تهیه است.

 

شناسه

تهیه کننده: نجمه نادری

متخصص علمی محتوا: دکتر عباس خسروی، دکتر گلنار ثابتیان و دکترشهرام پایدار

References:

1.درسنامه پرستاری داخلی جراحی برونرسودارث، اس‍م‍ت‍ن‍ر (1385)، س‍وزان‌ اوک‍ان‍ل‌

2.      www.mdconsult.com/public/patient/view

3.       www.critcaremd.com

4.       www.myicucare.org/Critical_Care_Team

5.      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11863143

6.      www.tju.edu/jmc 

7.      www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/root/vumc.php?site=neurocritical

8.      www.stonybrooksurgery.org

9.      libraries.umdnj.edu/camlbweb/hrc/critical

10.   www.uhn.ca

 

آخرین بروزرسانی ( يكشنبه ، 1 دی 1392 ، 15:06 )  
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