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You are here: صفحه اصلي آموزش بیماران شرایط بالینی خاص مراقبت از لوله تراکئوستومی

قطب علمی آموزش الکترونیکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شیراز

مراقبت از لوله تراکئوستومی

چاپ
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تراکئوستومی باز کردن یک راه هوایی در لوله تراشه است که شما آنرا به صورت یک حفره در زیر گلو مشاهده می کنید.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

در این مبحث به این سؤالات شما پاسخ داده می‌شود:

  1. تراکئوستومی چیست؟
  2. تراکئوستومی چه مزایایی دارد؟
  3. ساکشن تراکئوستومی چگونه است؟
  4. چه وسایلی جهت ساکشن تراکئوستومی مورد نیازند؟
  5. چه مواردی در مورد بیماران تراکئوستومی شده، باید رعایت شوند؟

 

     1.  تراکئوستومی چیست؟

تراکئوستومی باز کردن یک راه هوایی در لوله تراشه است که شما آنرا به صورت یک حفره در زیر گلو مشاهده می‌کنید.

 تراکئوستومی بر حسب نیاز بیمار ممکن است :                                                               

 الف) دائم       ب) موقت باشد.

  

2.  تراکئوستومی چه مزایایی دارد؟

1- راه هوایی مطمئنی است، برای خروج ترشحات مجاری تنفسی بیمار.

2- در بیمارانی که مدت طولانی از دستگاه تهویه مکانیکی استفاده می‌کنند و راه هوایی مطمئنی برای تنفس ندارند استفاده می‌شوند.

3- از ورود مواد خارجی، ترشحات دهانی یا محتویات معده به ریه در بیمارانی که کاملاً هوشیار نیستند پیشگیری می‌کند.

تراکئوستومی با یک نوار باریک به دور گردن بسته می‌شود و یک کاف به آن متصل می‌باشد که باید پر از هوا باشد تا از خروج آن جلوگیری کند و مانع ورود ترشحات از دهان و معده به ریه می‌شود. در زیر لوله تراکئوستومی یک عدد گاز قرار دهید تا باعث جذب ترشحات تراکئوستومی شود این گاز از ایجاد عفونت نیز پیشگیری می‌کند.

توجه :

گازی که در زیر تراکئوستومی قرار می‌گیرد را قیچی نکنید زیرا ممکن است پرزها وارد تراکئوستومی شده و ایجاد آبسه در مجاری تنفسی کند.

 با توجه به اینکه در بیماران تراکئوستومی شده، هوا از روی تارهای صوتی عبور نمی‌کند صحبت کردن آن‌ها بدون صدا می‌باشد. شما می‌توانید از طریق لب خوانی یا از طریق نوشتن مطالب با وی ارتباط برقرار کنید.

نکته مهم 1: در صورتی که کاف تراکئوستومی پر از هوا نباشد هنگام تغذیه ممکن است بیمار آسپيره کند، یعنی مواد غذایی و ترشحات ناحیه دهان وارد مسیر راه هوایی شود.

 

نکته مهم 2 : وقتی کاف به حد لازم پر از هوا نباشد تنفس بیمار صدایی خرخر مانند می‌دهد. در صورت مشاهده این حالت با پزشک و پرستار خود مشورت کنید.

    

  3.  ساکشن تراکئوستومی چگونه است؟ 

در بیمارانی که تراکئوستومی شده‌اند مکانیسم سرفه ضعیف است. این بیماران برای دفع ترشحات دستگاه تنفس دچار مشکل هستند و نیاز به ساکشن دارند.

زمانی باید بیمار را ساکشن کنید که صدای غیر طبیعی در ریه ها شنیده شود یا اینکه شما ترشحات را مشاهده نمایید.

 توجه داشته باشید که ساکشن کردن غیر ضروری علاوه بر آنکه خطر عفونت را بالا می‌برد باعث آسیب به دستگاه تنفسی بیمار می‌شود.

 

 4.  چه وسایلی جهت ساکشن تراکئوستومی مورد نیازند؟

سرنگ 5 سی سی حاوی سرم شستشو – گاز استریل – ماسک – دستگاه ساکشن – دستکش استریل – سر ساکشن سفید (ترجیحاً رنگ سفید) – آمبوبگ – لوله رابط ساکشن – کپسول اکسیژن.

قبل از انجام ساکشن حتماً از دستگاه بخور و فیزیوتراپی قفسه سینه استفاده کنید. این کار باعث رقیق‌تر شدن و کنده شدن ترشحات از مسیر راه هوایی می‌شود و عمل ساکشن کردن به طور موثرتری انجام می‌پذیرد.


قبل از انجام عملیات با بیمار صحبت کنید و بگویید امکان دارد حین ساکشن کردن احساس ناخوشایندی داشته باشد. او را به آرامش دعوت کنید سپس دست خود را بشویید و ماسک بزنید. حدود 5-3 دقیقه به بیمار اکسیژن با غلظت 10 لیتر بدهید این کار باعث می‌شود بیمار حین ساکشن کردن دچار کمبود اکسیژن نشود.

 سپس دستگاه ساکشن را روشن کنید و روی دور متوسط تنظیم نمایید (دور دستگاه نباید بیش از 120 میلی متر جیوه باشد) لوله رابط ساکشن را به دستگاه ساکشن وصل نمایید و سر ساکشن را بدون آنکه از پوشش کامل خارج کنید به لوله رابط ساکشن وصل کنید سپس بیمار را در وضعیت نیمه نشسته قرار دهید دستکش استریل بپوشید و سر ساکشن را بدون آنکه با جایی تماس پيدا کند از پوشش خارج کنید. سر ساکشن را حدود 10 تا 15 سانتی متر وارد تراکئوستومی کرده و با یک چرخش 360 درجه به آرامی بین انگشت شست و اشاره چرخانده و آنرا از تراکئوستومی خارج نمایید.


این عملیات نباید بیش از 10 تا 15 ثانیه طول بکشد بسته به میزان ترشحات بیمار این عمل را چندین بار تکرار نمایید. دقت کنید در بین هر بار ساکشن کردن به بیمار 5-3 دقیقه اکسیژن با غلظت 10 لیتر بدهید و لوله ساکشن را با سرم، شستشو بشویید.

 

 

   5.  چه نکاتی در هنگام تراکئوستومی باید رعایت شود؟

  1. اگر ترشحات بیمار غلیظ بود و یا به صورت تکه های خلط جامد در آمده است بهتر است مدت زمان بیشتری از بخور استفاده نمایید. اگر ترشحات به خوبی خارج نشد، از یک نفر کمک بخواهید و نفر دوم حدود 2 سی سی سرم شستشو استریل را در تراکئوستومی بریزد و چندین بار آمبو بزند سپس شما ساکشن کنید. این کار باعث کنده شدن ترشحات می‌شود. این عمل را از پرسنل پرستاری بخش سؤال نمایید که به شما آموزش دهند.
  2. در صورتی که گاز زیر تراکئوستومی آلوده به ترشحات گردید و مرطوب شد، چندین بار در روز باید تعویض شود.
  3. در صورت آلوده شدن بند تراکئوستومی به ترشحات با رعایت اصول ایمنی آن را تعویض نمایید.
  4. بند تراکئوستومی را طوری ببندید که دو انگشت به راحتی از زیر آن رد شود.

قبل از هر بار تغذیه چک کنید کاف تراکئوستومی پر از هوا باشد.

 

  1. مراقب باشید کاف را قیچی نکنید. در صورت قیچی شدن یا سوراخ شدن کاف با یک فرد کارشناس تماس بگیرید و مراقب باشید تراکئوستومی از جای خود خارج نشود.
  2. در حین استراحت کردن احیاناً پتو، ملحفه و ... روی تراکئوستومی بیمار را مسدود نکند.
  3. از ارتباط بیمار با افرادی که مبتلا به سرما خوردگی یا دیگر عفونت‌های دستگاه تنفسی هستند جلوگیری کنید.
  4. مراقب باشید محل استراحت بیمار عاری از گرد و خاک باشد و اگر مگسی وجود دارد از پشه بند و یا پارچه توری برای جلوگیری از وارد شدن پشه و مگس در لوله تراکئوستومی استفاده کنید.
  5. هیچ شی ء خارجی را هرگز وارد تراکئوستومی نکنید.
  6. هنگامی که بیمار سرفه می‌کند آمبو نزنید این عمل باعث آسیب شدید به بافت ریه می‌شود.

 

      توجه کنید:

        در صورتی که ترشحات مسیر تراکئوستومی را مسدود کند بیمار دچار کمبود اکسیژن و نهایتاً خفگی می‌شود. پس در این رابطه دقت کافی داشته باشید.

        در صورتی که لوله تراکئوستومی به هر دلیلی از جای خود خارج شد برای جاگذاری آن اقدام نکنید. بلکه بلافاصله به بیمار از مسیر تراکئوستومی اکسیژن بدهید و با پزشک معالجتان تماس حاصل نمایید.

دقت کنید هر بار ساکشن نباید بیشتر از 10 ثانیه طول بکشد زیرا ممکن است بیمار با کمبود اکسیژن مواجهه شود.

کمبود اکسیژن به هر دلیلی می‌تواند اثرات جبران ناپذیری بر مغز بیمار بگذارد.

 

   6. چه مواردی در مورد بیماران تراکئوستومی شده، باید رعایت شوند؟

توجه داشته باشید:

  1. دستگاه تنفس بیمار بسیار حساس و آسیب پذیر است پس لطفاً نکات استریل را به دقت رعایت نمایید.
  2. هیچ گاه به صرف اینکه ترشحات بیمار بسیار زیاد است بیشتر از 10 ثانیه سر ساکشن را در راه هوایی بیمار نگه ندارید.

بین هر مرحله از عمل ساکشن به مدت 5-3 دقیقه اجازه دهید بیمار به صورت طبیعی تنفس کندو اکسیژن با درصد بالا دریافت نماید.

  1. در صورت مشاهده ترشحات خونی همراه با عملیات ساکشن 2 سی سی آب مقطر استریل وارد تراکئوستومی نمایید با انجام این کار خونریزی کنترل می‌شود در این صورت از ادامه ساکشن خودداری نمایید زیرا بافت سیستم تنفسی آسیب دیده است. در صورت تکرار خونریزی حتماً با پزشک معالجتان مشورت نمایید.
  2. بین هر بار ساکشن حتماً به بیمار اکسیژن با درصد بالا بدهید.
  3. بعد از اتمام عملیات ساکشن 10 دقیقه به بیمار اکسیژن با درصد بالا بدهید. بعد از آنکه متوجه شدید وضعیت تنفس بیمار کاملاً مطلوب است می‌توانید اکسیژن را قطع کنید.
  4. سر ساکشن ها یک‌بار مصرف هستند بعد از هر بار استفاده باید دور انداخته شوند.
  5. هیچ گاه سر ساکشن را بیش از 10 تا 15 سانتی متر وارد لوله تراکئوستومی نکنید این عمل باعث آسیب به بافت ریه و خونریزی آن می‌شود.
  6. ساکشن را ترجیحاً بهتر است قبل از وعده غذایی، قبل از خواب و بعد از خواب انجام دهید. اما دقت داشته باشید که عملیات ساکشن زمان مشخصی ندارد و در واقع بر حسب نیاز بیمار است.
  7. هرگز سر ساکشنی که وارد دهان بیمار کرده‌اید را وارد تراکئوستومی نکنید زیرا بلافاصله باعث انتشار عفونت می‌شود.
  8. بعد از هر بار ساکشن مقداری سرم شستشو وارد لوله رابط ساکشن کنید تا ترشحات کاملاً از لوله پاک شود و دستگاه ساکشن برای استفاده مجدد آماده گردد.
  9. بعد از اتمام عملیات ساکشن سر لوله رابط را با یک گاز استریل بپوشانید.
  10. در صورتی که ترشحات بیمار زیاد است یا به راحتی خارج نمی‌شود و یا به صورت تکه های جامد در آمده است مدت زمان بیشتری به بیمار بخور دهید و مجدداً عملیات ساکشن را تکرار کنید. نوشیدن مایعات گرم نیز می‌تواند موثر باشد.
  11. در حین ساکشن بیمار را تشویق به سرفه نمایید. این کار باعث کنده شدن ترشحات انباشته شده در انتهای راه هوایی می‌گردد.

حداقل روزی 3 بار ظرف جمع کننده ترشحات را خارج کرده و به خوبی با آب و مایع سفید کننده بشویید و در معرض نور خورشید آن را خشک نمایید.         

 

  1. بعد از اتمام عملیات ساکشن دست‌ها را با آب و صابون بشویید و خشک کنید.
  2. در صورتی که سر ساکشن به راحتی وارد تراکئوستومی نمی‌شود می‌توانید آن را با مقدار کمی سرم شستشوی استریل و یا ژل لوبریکانت آغشته نمایید و مجدداً برای انجام عملیات ساکشن اقدام نمایید (ژل لوبریکانت در داروخانه‌ها موجود می‌باشد).
  3. هنگام ساکشن کردن به آرامی لوله تراکئوستومی را بادست نگه دارید تا از بیرون آمدن آن ممانعت کنید.
  4. لوله رابط ساکشن را روزانه تعویض کنید.

توجه کنید:

بعد از اتمام عملیات ساکشن کلیه وسایل آلوده را در کیسه نایلونی بریزد و سپس آنرا در سطل زباله بیندازید. با این اقدام از انتشار آلودگی پیشگیری می‌نمایید.

 

 

 

خلاصه

 

تراکئوستومی باز کردن یک راه هوایی در لوله تراشه است که شما آنرا به صورت یک حفره در زیر گلو مشاهده می‌کنید.  تراکئوستومی بر حسب نیاز بیمار ممکن است دائم یا موقت باشد و دارای مزایای زیر می‌باشد:

1- راه هوایی مطمئنی است، برای خروج ترشحات مجاری تنفسی بیمار.

2- در بیمارانی که مدت طولانی از دستگاه تهویه مکانیکی استفاده می‌کنند و راه هوایی مطمئنی برای تنفس ندارند استفاده می‌شوند.

3- از ورود مواد خارجی، ترشحات دهانی یا محتویات معده به ریه در بیمارانی که کاملاً هوشیار نیستند پیشگیری می‌کند.

چگونگی عملکرد تراکئوستومی بدین صورت است که:

1. در بیمارانی که تراکئوستومی شده‌اند مکانیسم سرفه ضعیف است. این بیماران برای دفع ترشحات دستگاه تنفس دچار مشکل هستند و نیاز به ساکشن دارند.

2. زمانی باید بیمار را ساکشن کنید که صدای غیر طبیعی در ریه ها شنیده شود یا اینکه شما ترشحات را مشاهده نمایید.

 3. توجه داشته باشید که ساکشن کردن غیر ضروری علاوه بر آنکه خطر عفونت را بالا می‌برد باعث آسیب به دستگاه تنفسی بیمار می‌شود.



برای مشاهده اسلایدهای تعاملی اینجا کلیک کنید.

ویدیو این قسمت در دست تهیه است.

 

شناسه

تهیه کننده: نجمه نادری

متخصص علمی محتوا: دکتر عباس خسروی، دکتر گلنار ثابتیان و دکترشهرام پایدار

 

References:

1.درسنامه پرستاری داخلی جراحی برونرسودارث، اس‍م‍ت‍ن‍ر (1385)، س‍وزان‌ اوک‍ان‍ل‌

2.      www.mdconsult.com/public/patient/view

3.       www.critcaremd.com

4.       www.myicucare.org/Critical_Care_Team

5.      www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11863143

6.      www.tju.edu/jmc 

7.      www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/root/vumc.php?site=neurocritical

8.      www.stonybrooksurgery.org

9.      libraries.umdnj.edu/camlbweb/hrc/critical

10.   www.uhn.ca

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